Бездисковая загрузка по технологии iscsi на базе ос windows

Common Errors

This section describes some common errors which can be seen when you use the TFTP client.

Error Explanation
Invalid String The dnld file is in DOS/Windows format or the field names have been typed incorrectly. See step 3 in the section.
File too large The dnld file is probably in Word, RTF format, or corrupt. See step 3 in the section.
Error on server: Illegal TFTP operation TFTP Put is in ASCII mode. Switch to Binary mode.
Error on server: SV+ not authorized to initiate FW/SW dnld Cnffwswinit IP address is not set to the PC’s IP address on the node.
Download Space Not FREE Configuration image (from savecnf) present (use the savecnf clear command to clear).
File not found Check the Server Root and PathName configuration. Also make sure the image file has a lowercase extension (.img instead of .IMG). The node looks for upper and lowercase file names, but the extension must be in lowercase letters. Also, check for extra spaces after the file name. Recheck the PC’s IP address entered in the dnld file.
SW revision change going on SWSW download in progress.
Invalid Revision number Revision does not match card type.
IInvalid Card Type Card specified in the CardName field in dnld.fw is not valid.
Card does not support FW download In earlier releases of SWSW, some cards (ASI, BNI, HDM, LDM) are not supported, and the error code 78 will appear. Refer to Cisco bug ID CSCdj35089 (registered customers only) .

Настройка TFTP сервера

Если требуется использование DHCP сервера, например, для выдачи динамических айпишников в пределах малой сети, необходимо зайти в раздел Setting и выбрать вкладку DHCP.

Здесь нам нужно указать:

  • исходный IP адрес (получаемый на маршрутизаторе);
  • диапазон выдаваемых клиентам адресов;
  • указание шлюза сети не является обязательным;
  • четвёртый параметр – маска подсети.

Подтверждаем внесение изменений нажатием ОК.

Поскольку в основе TFTP лежит использование транспортного протокола нижнего уровня UDP, в котором установление соединения не предусмотрено, задача эмуляции соединения становится прерогативой внешнего протокола, в нашем случае – TFTP. Проблема в том, что межсетевые экраны в большинстве случаев не умеют идентифицировать соединения, инициированные протоколом TFTP, так что этот тип трафика он пропускать не в состоянии.

Но если TFTP-сервер располагается в пределах защищённой сети, а клиентские устройства – перед файерволом, то проблем быть не должно, но потребуется внесение изменений в настройки файервола:

  • нужно добавить правило транспортировки пакетов данных из внешнего айпишника на адрес сервера TFTP, указанный в конфигурации программы (через порт 69 TFTP сервера);
  • разрешить перенаправление трафика из внутренней сети на внешний IP-адрес.

В большинстве маршрутизаторов при передаче данных с более защищённой сети в менее защищённую проблем не возникает, но, когда требуется выполнить противоположную задачу, как раз и потребуется выполнение перечисленных выше действий.

Проблема в том, что не все сетевые роутеры/маршрутизаторы позволяют выполнить такие настройки. Но многие из них оснащены функцией просмотра трафика, направляемого с использованием протокола TFTP, при этом они в состоянии динамически изменять таблицу трансляции, позволяя пропускать пакеты извне, идущие в локальную сеть. Так, чтобы настроить файервол маршрутизатора Cisco PIX, необходимо выполнить команду fixup protocol tftp.

Существует альтернативный способ решения проблемы: можно обязать сервер TFTP задействовать порт 69 в двух направлениях, не только для приема запросов, идущих от клиентов, но и для пересылки им ответов. Тогда файервол сможет корректно обрабатывать оба типа запросов, руководствуясь записями, имеющимися в таблице трансляций.

Так, чтобы настроить WinAGents TFTP Server подобным образом, необходимо в настройках программы установить галочку напротив опции Enable firewall support.

Best TFTP server

Name IPv4/IPv6 File Size Limit Link
SolarWinds Free TFTP server IPv4 4 GB Learn More
Spiceworks TFTP server IPv4 33 MB Learn More
Progress WhatsUp TFTP Server IPv4 4 GB Learn More

1) SolarWinds Free TFTP server

SolarWinds provides a free TFTP server for Windows that offers basic functionalities like IP-range lockdown, etc. It can transfer files up to 4GB in size. This server management service is easier to manage with native Windows tools.

Key Features:

  • Suitable for transferring device configuration images
  • Communicates with several devices simultaneously
  • It offers concurrent transfers from multiple devices and runs as a Windows service.
  • Let’s you authorize a specific IP address or a range of IPs altogether.
  • Easy to use TFTP software with backup network devices and configurations.
  • Offers highly scalable multi-user administration and advanced device config backup.
  • Free TFTP server which runs on Windows easily

2) Spiceworks TFTP server

Spiceworks is a complete IT management tool that provides its users with free TFTP servers to make their work easy.

This TFTP software is one of the best TFTP servers developed for IT professionals to track their network device config. It also enables you to backup and view all your config in one place.

Features

  • Allows you to compare current network configration with backups.
  • These TFTP servers can be used for configuration image transfers
  • Helps you to push out firmware updates in the background.
  • Free and in-built features of Spiceworks.

Link: https://www.spiceworks.com/free-tftp-server-for-network-configuration-management/

3) Progress WhatsUp TFTP Server

WhatsUp Gold is one of the best TFTP servers, which helps save you time while doing networking. This service-based tool allows you to securely transfer files across the network.

Features:

  • It offers a simple transfer of system configuration.
  • Sturdy, clean, and attractive GUI based interface.
  • It helps you to save time and effort when uploading and downloading the file.
  • Compatible with the older versions of Windows such as XP, Vista, and others.

Link:https://www.whatsupgold.com/free-network-monitoring-tools/free-tftp-server

4) TFTP Desktop Server

TFTP desktop server is the best solution for updating routers, OS, image transfer, and remote booting. It also allows you to configure multiple devices in a single network.

Features:

  • Real-time TFTP graph transfer helps you to work across the network.
  • Unlimited file sizes: no 16/32MB file size limitation
  • Graphs TFTP transfers in real-time
  • Directory and IP address-based security
  • Secured and locked TFTP root folder
  • It offers security based on the directory as well as the IP address.
  • Extremely fast file transfers

Link:https://tftp-desktop-server.apponic.com/

5) WinAGents

WinAgents provides a fully recognized TFTP server. It is a specially built tool to work consistently in the background. It helps you to create stock copies of different data like flash images, config files, and device settings in case of an emergency.

Features:

  • Offers virtual TFTP folders, servers, and graphic utilities for status control.
  • Offers highly scalable server architecture that has a built-in cache system and remote server administration.
  • It helps you to set different access rights for various folders.
  • It provides an option for setting the highest precedence for the server process
  • Provide IP based access control
  • File transmission using firewalls, and high precedence for a server process.

Link:https://www.winagents.com/en/products/tftp-server/

6) atftpd

ATFTPD is a Windows TFTF server that is widely used in various types of networks. It offers multithreaded and multicast architecture.

Features:

  • Full TFTP options support with high compatibility options.
  • It also supports PXE or MTFTP specifications.
  • Provides fast servers to make your packages search as fast as possible.
  • It helps you to replace the requested filename with the new one.
  • Allows users to restrict accessing the untrusted hosts.
  • Free TFTP Server for Linux.

Link: https://pkgs.org/download/atftpd

7) haneWIN TFTP server

haneWIN TFTP is a multithreaded server-based and fully realizable TFTP server for all versions of Windows. This TFTP server for Windows helps you to achieve maximum reliability and high performance while transferring the data.

Features:

  • Implemented as a Windows service and also supports all types of Windows versions.
  • This TFTP server for Windows includes an intuitive control panel for accessing all services.
  • Offers multithreaded architecture for high performance, security, and reliability as well.
  • It helps you to receive data directly into another application using a pipe option.

Link: https://www.hanewin.net/tftp-e.htm

Solarwinds Free TFTP Server

Solarwinds offers a full suite of IT and network management software. Their free TFTP server is a stripped-down version of their Network Configuration Manager product, but it functions well for basic tasks like pushing out OS images to workstations or firmware to network devices periodically over an internal network.

It can handle files as large as 4 GB, concurrent transfers to many devices at once, and runs as a Windows service. It doesn’t have more advanced features like device backup and version control or change management tools, but it does manage which IP numbers are authorized for connections.

Как передавать файлы в сети TFTP

После установки клиента и перенаправления порта перейдем к передаче файлов. Убедитесь, что сервер запущен, затем следуйте инструкциям:

Нажмите Win + R, в диалоговом окне наберите cmd для вызова командной строки. Перенесите или скопируйте файлы, которые хотите передать, в корневой каталог сервера.

Для отправки файлов нужно использовать параметр PUT, при получении GET. Синтаксис команды выглядит следующим образом:

Tftp -i

Например, для передачи используйте команду:

Tftp -i 192.168.10.3 put E:\file.txt

Если хотите получить файл, то команда будет выглядеть:

Tftp -i 192.168.10.3 get file.txt

Если хотите переслать на удаленное устройство за пределами сети, нужно указать публичный IP-адрес в командной строке, а затем порт. Примером может быть:

Tftp -i 39.43.126.2:69 put E:\file.txt

❓ What is TFTP Server?

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is used for small file transfers and does not require any authentication. TFTP is helps you to transfer files, backup network, and boot PCs without a disk. It uses UDP, which does not have error checking as TCP does. TFTP servers are mostly used in devices like mobile phones and routers.

Moreover, the implementation of the TFTP protocol is applied when there is no security and authentication needed. So, TFTP is hardly exercised in a computer network, as it lacks security, which makes it vulnerable.

You are likely to encounter TFTP servers on Linux, but sometimes you will find it on Windows and Mac as well. One major drawback of TFTP is that it does not have any access privileges in place.

Therefore, you access a TFTP server only if you are not using an external firewall or another third-party device which makes it less secure than other protocols like FTP and SCP.

PC Functioning as an FTP Server

Figure 5-13 Networking diagram

  1. Run the FTP server software on the FTP server and configure the FTP service.

    As shown in , run an FTP server program on the PC, for example, wftpd32. Choose Security > Users/rights. In the dialog box that is displayed, click New User. In the dialog box that is displayed, set the user name to user and password to huawei. Set Home Directory to D:\FTP. Click Done to close the dialog box. Set the IP address of the PC to 192.168.0.2 and mask to 255.255.255.0.

    Figure 5-14 Configure the FTP server

  2. Connect the switch and the FTP server.
    1. Connect the FTP server to Ethernet0/0/0 of the switch using a network cable.
    2. Configure the IP address 192.168.0.1/24 for Ethernet0/0/0.
      <HUAWEI> system-view 
       interface ethernet 0/0/0 
      [HUAWEI-Ethernet0/0/0] ip address 192.168.0.1 24

      If a fixed switch uses VLANIF 10 to connect to the FTP server through GE0/0/1, the configurations are as follows:

      <HUAWEI> system-view 
       vlan 10 
       quit 
       interface gigabitethernet 0/0/1 
      [HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] port link-type hybrid 
      [HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] port hybrid untagged vlan 10 
       interface vlanif 10 
       ip address 192.168.0.1 24
    3. Check whether the switch and FTP server are connected.
      [HUAWEI-Ethernet0/0/0] ping 192.168.0.2 
        PING 192.168.0.2: 56 data bytes, press CTRL_C to break 
          Reply from 192.168.0.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=128 time=4 ms 
          Reply from 192.168.0.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=128 time=3 ms 
          Reply from 192.168.0.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=128 time=18 ms 
          Reply from 192.168.0.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=128 time=3 ms 
          Reply from 192.168.0.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=128 time=3 ms 
       
        --- 192.168.0.2 ping statistics --- 
          5 packet(s) transmitted 
          5 packet(s) received 
          0.00% packet loss 
          round-trip min/avg/max = 3/6/18 ms 

      The preceding information indicates that the switch and FTP server can communicate properly with each other.

    The direct connection mode is used as an example here. For an indirectly connected network, ensure that there are reachable routes between the FTP server and client.

  3. Log in to the server (PC) from the switch using FTP.
    [HUAWEI-Ethernet0/0/0] return 
    <HUAWEI> ftp 192.168.0.2 
    Trying 192.168.0.2 ... 
    Press CTRL+K to abort 
    Connected to 192.168.0.2. 
    220 FTP Server ready. 
    User(192.168.0.2:(none)):user     //Enter the FTP user name user.
    331 Password required for ftpuser. 
    Enter password:    //Enter the FTP password huawei.
    230 User logged in. 
     
    
  4. Run the put command to upload the required file to the FTP server (PC) or run the get

    # Upload the configuration file to the FTP server (PC).

    command to download the required file from the FTP server to the switch. Examples are as follows:

     put vrpcfg.zip 
    200 Port command okay. 
    150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for vrpcfg.zip. 
    226 Transfer complete. 
    FTP: 8174 byte(s) sent in 0.099 second(s) 82.56Kbyte(s)/sec. 

    You can find the vrpcfg.zip file in D:\FTP on the PC.

# Download the latest version of the system software to the switch. binary //Set the file transfer mode to binary.
200 Type set to I.

get devicesoft.cc
200 Port command okay.
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for devicesoft.cc.
226 Transfer complete.
FTP: 93832832 byte(s) received in 722 second(s) 560.70byte(s)/sec.

It is recommended that the transfer mode should be changed to binary when the program files such as system software are transferred to ensure transmission reliability.

After the transfer is complete, run the dir command in the user view of the switch. You can find the file in the storage device.

Starting new transfer

Assuming client does not already exist, we check if his filename contains two dots for parent directory access and if request file exists. Also we validate the transfer mode and only allow netascii and octet. Failure in any of these will result in an error package sent and the client won’t be added to our pool of clients. Otherwise, we read the next 512 bytes from the file and send the first package and also add him to the client pool (dictionary).

If he already exists he generally should not be sending more RRQ. If he does and clients block number is still at 1, we resend the first package up to some amount of resends. If they are reached we send an error and remove the client.

The best macOS TFTP server

1. macOS TFTP server

macOS has a built-in TFTP server that won’t be loaded by default. The easiest way to get it running is to simply type:

Then, provide your password when prompted. You can use something like netstat to confirm it is running:

$ netstat -n | grep *.69
 udp4 0 .69 .*
 udp6 0 .69 .*

The TFTP server is now running on port 69 waiting for connections. You can use any TFTP client to connect to the server and upload or download files. To shut down the TFTP server, simply use the command:

Pros:

  • Already part of the macOS, just needs to be loaded
  • Easy setup, only takes a minute or two
  • Runs incredibly lean, using few resources

Cons:

Configuration options might be difficult to find

Key Features:

  • Native to Macs’ operating system
  • Command line
  • Free TFTP server for macOS

Initiate the TFTP

This section describes how to initiate the transfer after you complete all of the preliminary setup steps.

  1. Run the Weird Solutions TFTP client.

  2. Set the option buttons to Put and Binary (ASCII does not work).

  3. In the Source file field, enter c:\images\ipxbpx\dnld.fw or c:\images\ipxbpx\dnld.sw (assuming you use the directory structure this example uses).

  4. In the Destination file field, enter dnld.fw or dnld.sw.

  5. In the Remote host field, enter the Name or IP address of the switch. If you use the Name, it must be resolvable by DNS, or the appropriate Name-to-IP address mapping must be in the \Windows\hosts file. The \Windows\hosts file may or may not exist on the PC. Create it if necessary (do not use the lmhosts or hosts.sam (sample) files). On Windows NT, the hosts file is located in the \Winnt\system32\drivers\etc directory.

  6. No entries are necessary in the Blocksize and Timeout fields. They default to 512 and 3, respectively.

  7. Run the Cisco TFTP server if does not already run. Select Options, then Server Root Directory, and browse to the c:\images directory.

  8. Click the Put button. The transfer should complete with no errors. If you receive a timeout, check that the node is reachable by pinging the Name or IP address entered in the Remote Host field. If errors are received, see the list of .

  9. View the TFTP server status window or the node dspdnld and dspfwrev screens, or both. After a short delay, the files should begin to transfer. If not, verify that the IP address of the PC is in the dnld file that was transferred to the node.

Проверка работоспособности TFTP сервера

Чтобы проверить, работает ли TFTP сервер, необходимо просто выполнить копирование файла с сервера на клиентское оборудование.

Для этого нужно запустить консоль на клиенте, а затем выполнить команду tftp 192.168.1.35 GET <имя копируемого файла>. Если всё настроено правильно, после паузы, во время которой и происходит передача данных, указанный файл должен появиться на клиентском оборудовании.

Отметим, что копирование будет производиться в каталог, в котором запускалась консоль, если в настройках программы не указан другой путь. Но не все утилиты имеют такие настройки. Например, если вы используете WinAGents TFTP Server, вам нужно будет выполнить последовательно две команды:

  • cd <путь назначения>;
  • tftp168.1.35 GET <имя копируемого файла>.

В этом случае копирование будет производиться в указанную вами директорию.

В утилите TFTPD32 копирование будет выглядеть несколько иначе. На клиентской машине следует запустить приложение, открыть в нём вкладку TFTPClient, а затем указать IP-адрес сервера, а затем имя файла, который мы намереваемся скачать. Сохранить его можно и под другим именем, указав его в соответствующей строке настроек. Завершив все приготовления, жмём кнопку GET и дожидаемся результатов операции.

Как видим, использование TFTP сервера не ставит перед пользователем неразрешимых задач, за исключением случаев, когда требуется доступ за пределы локальной сети. Но для этих случаев существуют другие, более защищённые и безопасные сетевые протоколы.

haneWin TFTP Server

haneWin TFTP Server is a shareware offering for Windows. It supports both current and legacy Windows versions ranging from XP to Windows 10, and it can run as a service in the background on Windows 95/98/2000 without a user account logged in.

Data security options provided by haneWin include profiles based on the operation requested, IP address, and the file directories used by the server.

You can configure the server to transfer data through a range of UDP ports depending on your firewall settings and network traffic.

The client that comes with haneWin’s TFTP server is a Win32 console app that implements TFTP configurations in its command line options. For instance, you can set up a pipeline that will direct file transfers to other applications.

WhatsUp TFTP Server

Ipswitch is a software company that specializes in file transfer and network management tools. Their WhatsUp Gold TFTP Server is a free utility they offer for network engineers to add to their toolbox.

It allows automated file transfers to be set up for multiple computers and devices on an intranet with a dedicated schedule.

Whether you need a tool to reinstall a software configuration weekly or a way to push out firmware and application patches to dozens of devices, WhatsUp Gold can make your life easier.

Like other TFTP servers, it runs as an always-on service and can even schedule file transfers during low traffic hours.

TFTP Desktop

Not all the TFTP servers are designed specifically for network administrators handling hundreds of workstations and routers on an intranet.

TFTP Desktop is a consumer app made for situations that can arise on home networks. It was released during the Windows 7 era and hasn’t received an update, so it’s limited to running on pre-Windows 8 computers.

It does, however, support Windows 98, so if you have a legacy computer you keep as a home server, this program can run on it. It’s a free trial download on CNET that’s fully functional, which makes it ideal for fixing temporary problems like transfering large files between incompatible OSes.

Switch Functioning as an FTP Server

Figure 5-17 Networking diagram

  1. Connect the PC and the switch, and configure IP addresses for them. For details, see «PC Functioning as an FTP Server».
  2. Enable FTP on the switch, and create a user name, password, and FTP path.

    You must set the user level to level 3 or above to establish an FTP connection.

    <HUAWEI> system-view 
     ftp server enable 
     aaa 
     local-user huawei password irreversible-cipher Helloworld@6789 
     local-user huawei service-type ftp 
     local-user huawei ftp-directory cfcard: 
     local-user huawei privilege level 15 
     quit 
     quit 
  3. Log in to the switch from the PC by running the ftp command. Run the get command to download files from the switch to the PC or run the put command to upload files to the switch.
  4. For example, on a PC running the Windows operating system, choose Start > Run, enter cmd, and click OK.
    C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator> ftp 192.168.0.1 
    Connected to 192.168.0.1.
    220 FTP service ready. 
    User (192.168.0.1:(none)): huawei
    331 Password required for huawei. 
    Password:
    230 User logged in. 
    ftp> get vrpcfg.zip 
    200 Port command okay. 
    150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for vrpcfg.zip. 
    226 Transfer complete. 
    ftp: 5203 bytes received in 0.01 seconds, 346.87 Kbytes/sec
    ftp> lcd     //Check the storage location of the downloaded configuration file vrpcfg.zip on the PC.
    Local directory now C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator. 
    ftp> put abcd.zip 
    200 Port command okay. 
    150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for vrpcfg.zip. 
    226 Transfer complete. 
    ftp: 8423 bytes sent in 0.01 seconds, 346.00 Kbytes/sec

The user name Administrator is an example, and the actual output may be different.

The FTP client commands vary with the operating system. For details, see relevant help documentation of each operating system.

Spiceworks TFTP Server

Spiceworks is a well-known networking and IT community with various relevant software tools as well.

One of their offerings include a network administration app that bundles a TFTP server for network configuration tasks.

The app includes an inventory tab that gives you a snapshot of all your network devices and workstations.

It includes an interface for scheduling file transfers like backups, configuration restore files, and firmware updates.

SpiceWorks also provides advanced features like comparing a device’s current software configuration with a backup to detect changes that have been made.

Whether you need to reset your workstations to a software configuration periodically or just want to schedule safe backups for repairing errors in the future, SpiceWorks can handle your TFTP server needs.

You will need to register and create an account in order to download.

WinAgents TFTP Server

WinAgents Software Group offers free downloads of their TFTP Server. It’s a legacy software designed to run on Windows 2000, 2003, Vista, and 7, which makes it useful if you work with these older OSes on your network. It can probably work with Windows 10 as well, you just need to try it.

WinAgents TFTP Server operates as a background service and implements an IP-based access control model for some kind of network security.

It also supports sending files through firewalls by configuring a UDP port for the connections. Administrators who manage large intranets or remote sites will find the remote configuration features helpful. The cache system makes the system highly scalable compared to other free TFTP tools.

PC Functioning as a TFTP Server

Figure 5-15 Networking diagram

  1. Configure the PC as a TFTP server. Run the TFTP server program on the PC and set the working path to D:\tftpd32, as shown in .

    The TFTP server program is not installed by default, and users must purchase and install the TFTP server software themselves. The TFTP32 software is recommended.

    Figure 5-16 Configuring a TFTP server

  2. Connect the TFTP server and the switch, and configure IP addresses for them. For details, see «PC Functioning as an FTP Server».
  3. Run the tftp tftp-server put source-filename command to upload the required file to the TFTP server (PC) or run the tftp tftp-server get source-filename [ destination-filename

    Upload the configuration file vrpcfg.zip to the TFTP server (PC) and save the file as vrpcfg1.zip.

    ] command to download the required file from the TFTP server to the switch. Examples are as follows:

    <HUAWEI> tftp 192.168.0.2 put vrpcfg.zip vrpcfg1.zip 
    Info: Transfer file in binary mode. 
    Uploading the file to the remote TFTP server. Please wait...| 
    TFTP: Uploading the file successfully. 
        8174 bytes send in 1 second. 

    You can find the vrpcfg1.zip file in D:\TFTP on the PC.

Альтернатива домашней сети

Домашняя группа Windows была удобным инструментом для обмена файлами по сети. Но была исключена с обновлением Windows 10 до версии 1803. Для замены можно использовать TFTP-сервер, который интуитивный в настройке, достаточно надежный и позволяет передавать данные на быстрой скорости.

Перед настройкой сервера TFTP нужно выполнить следующие действия:

  1. Войдите в систему под учетной записью администратора.
  2. Загрузите установщик TFTP-сервера компании SolarWinds. После распакуйте загруженный zip архив в любое место на диске и установите программу, следуя инструкциям на экране.
  3. Чтобы разрешить удаленный доступ к серверу, нужно переадресовать UDP-порт 69 на IP адрес домашней сети. Но, если удаленное подключение не требуется, то переназначать порты не нужно.